Washington Navel Orange Tree

The Washington Navel Orange Tree is a beloved citrus tree known for its sweet, seedless fruit and ease of cultivation. Originating from a single mutation discovered in Brazil in the early 19th century, this tree has become a staple in many home gardens and commercial orchards around the world. Here’s everything you need to know about growing and caring for a Washington Navel Orange Tree.

History and Origin

Washington Navel Orange TreeThe Washington Navel Orange Tree’s journey began in 1820 in Bahia, Brazil, where a mutation produced a new, sweet, seedless orange. This orange was named the “Bahia Navel.” In 1870, the U.S. Department of Agriculture imported twelve of these trees to Washington, D.C. From there, they were propagated and distributed, eventually leading to their widespread cultivation in California. The fruit was named the “Washington Navel” in honor of its journey.




  • Recognition: The Washington Navel Orange is distinctly recognizable due to the presence of a small, secondary fruit embedded at the blossom end, which resembles a human navel.
  • Size: These oranges are medium to large, typically ranging from 2.75 to 4 inches in diameter.
  • Rind: The rind is bright orange, relatively thick, and textured, but easy to peel, making the fruit convenient for fresh consumption.
  • Segments: Each orange is composed of easily separable segments, typically ranging from 10 to 12 per fruit.


  • Size and Shape: The tree itself is medium-sized, usually growing to about 6-10 feet tall and wide when pruned properly. It has a naturally rounded, bushy canopy.
  • Foliage: The leaves are glossy, dark green, and oval-shaped with a pointed tip, adding to the tree’s ornamental value.
  • Flowers: In the spring, the tree produces clusters of fragrant white flowers. These blossoms are not only visually appealing but also attract pollinators like bees, which contribute to the tree’s health and fruit production.

Taste and Texture


  • Sweetness and Acidity: Washington Navel Oranges are celebrated for their sweet, rich flavor, perfectly balanced with a slight acidity. This harmonious blend makes them exceptionally refreshing and enjoyable to eat.
  • Seedless: One of the most significant advantages of these oranges is that they are seedless, which enhances their convenience and appeal for fresh eating and juicing.


  • Tenderness: The flesh of the Washington Navel Orange is notably tender, making it easy to bite into and chew.
  • Juiciness: These oranges are known for their high juice content, which contributes to their refreshing quality.
  • Segmentation: The fruit segments are well-defined and easily separable, which adds to the ease of eating. The fine, juicy texture of the segments also makes them ideal for various culinary uses, from fresh salads to desserts and beverages.

Growing Conditions


  • Temperature: Washington Navel Orange Trees thrive in warm climates. They are best suited for USDA hardiness zones 9-11. While they can tolerate short periods of frost, prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures can damage the tree and fruit.
  • Sunlight: Full sun is essential for optimal growth and fruit production. The tree requires at least 6-8 hours of direct sunlight daily.


  • Type: The tree prefers well-draining soil with a pH between 6.0 and 7.5. Sandy loam is ideal, but the tree can adapt to various soil types as long as drainage is adequate.
  • Preparation: Before planting, enrich the soil with organic matter to improve fertility and drainage. A well-prepared planting site sets the stage for a healthy tree.


  • Frequency: Young trees need regular watering to establish their root systems. Water them deeply once or twice a week, depending on the weather. Mature trees are more drought-tolerant but still require consistent moisture, especially during the fruiting season.
  • Method: Use drip irrigation or a soaker hose to water deeply and evenly, promoting strong root growth.

Planting and Care


  1. Site Selection: Choose a sunny, well-draining location.
  2. Digging the Hole: Dig a hole twice as wide and as deep as the root ball.
  3. Planting: Place the tree in the hole, ensuring the root crown is slightly above ground level. Backfill with soil and water thoroughly.


  • Type: Use a balanced citrus fertilizer, rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
  • Schedule: Fertilize every 6-8 weeks during the growing season (spring through summer). Reduce frequency in the fall and winter.


  • Purpose: Prune to maintain shape, remove dead or diseased branches, and improve air circulation.
  • Timing: Prune in late winter or early spring before new growth begins.

Pest and Disease Management

  • Pests: Common pests include aphids, spider mites, and citrus scale. Use insecticidal soap or neem oil to manage infestations.
  • Diseases: Watch for citrus canker, root rot, and greening disease. Ensure proper sanitation and use disease-resistant rootstocks when possible.



  • Season: Washington Navel Oranges typically ripen from late fall to early winter, depending on the climate.
  • Indicators: The fruit is ready to harvest when it has developed a deep orange color and is slightly soft to the touch.


  • Harvesting: Gently twist or cut the fruit from the tree to avoid damaging the branches.
  • Post-Harvest: Store the oranges in a cool, dry place. They can last several weeks if stored properly.


Culinary Uses

Fresh Eating: Washington Navel Oranges are perfect for fresh eating. Their sweet, juicy, and seedless nature makes them a delightful snack on their own. They are easy to peel and segment, making them convenient for both adults and children to enjoy without the hassle of seeds.

Juicing: The high juice content of Washington Navel Oranges makes them ideal for fresh-squeezed orange juice. The juice is sweet and flavorful, providing a refreshing and healthy beverage option. These oranges are a popular choice for morning juices or as a base for smoothies.

Cooking and Baking: The zest and juice of Washington Navel Oranges can be used in a variety of recipes. The zest adds a bright, citrusy flavor to dishes such as salads, marinades, and sauces. The juice can be incorporated into cakes, muffins, and desserts, enhancing their flavor with a natural sweetness and acidity. Additionally, orange segments can be used in fruit salads, salsas, and garnishes.

Ornamental Uses

Landscape Value: The Washington Navel Orange Tree adds significant aesthetic value to gardens. Its glossy, dark green foliage provides a lush backdrop, while the fragrant white flowers in the spring create a visually appealing and aromatic environment. The bright orange fruit that follows is not only attractive but also provides a striking contrast against the green leaves, enhancing the overall beauty of the landscape.

Container Growing: This tree is suitable for growing in large containers, making it an excellent option for patios, balconies, and smaller garden spaces. Container-grown Washington Navel Orange Trees can be moved to optimize sunlight exposure and protect them from harsh weather conditions. The compact size and manageable growth make them a versatile choice for those with limited space but who still desire the beauty and productivity of a citrus tree.


The Washington Navel Orange Tree is a rewarding addition to any garden, offering delicious fruit and ornamental beauty. With proper care and maintenance, you can enjoy fresh, sweet oranges right from your backyard. Whether you’re an experienced gardener or a beginner, the Washington Navel Orange Tree is an excellent choice for its ease of growth and bountiful harvest.

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